Black and White Photography


Photographic Printmaking

May 5th, 2020 • UncategorisedPhotography Gear

I in this age of digital wonders I continue to work with ancient film cameras and make silver gelatine prints in a real darkroom.  This text is about my personal practice of photographic printing in my darkroom.

Wet print of Karara Swamp WA 2004 on splash board above fixer tray

This post is about my photographic printmaking, but first I will mention the importance of balance, that there has to be a balance between the subject and its representation.  A bad print of an amazing subject does not reveal and a beautiful print of boredom is a nice gray scale.  However, this is the subject of another post, so I will leave it for now.

In my work appropriate print quality is important.  By appropriate printing I include my often contrasty nudes from the early 1970s.

Sue, Nude, Royal Crescent, Bath, England 1970

The harsh prints of 1980s Perth new music movement (see Artist Portrait Portfolio).

Lindsay Vickery, Leighton Beach, Perth, WA 1989

More recently the over enlarged grainy prints of the late 1990s forest protest actions in the Southern Forest Region of Western Australia (see Southern Forest III – Protest and Conflict Portfolio).

Penny's Dragon forest protest, Wattle Forest, WA 1998

At the beginning of a new body of work I have often worked with the Zone System to achieve easily printable negatives.  I would subsequently simplify my location practice for speed and concentration on the light and subject.  The Zone system is often understood as a way of making fine long toned prints of Californian landscapes, but it is far more fluid and broad than that.  Good prints don’t have to show the full suite of mid tones to for the print to be right for the subject, and the Zone System can help with that too.

Alana, Nude, Abysinia Rocks WA 1992

However, apart from the 35mm portfolios mentioned above, and experimental bodies of work, my preference for almost all of my personal work is for sharp, richly toned prints from large negatives.

Burnt Forest, Quinninup, WA 2000

The historical reason for this, as I have stated elsewhere, is that due to hyperopia that was undiagnosed until about the age of seven the first time I saw anything clearly was through a phoropter.  I will never forget that machine or the outline picture of a duck.  The result of seven years of being effectively blind is that I enjoy sharpness and clarity, and why I loathe pinhole photography and Matisse.  As a young child everything looked like a pinhole picture of a Matisse landscape.

Karri Forest, Boorara, WA 2000

On a personal level I enjoy good silver jelly prints (my silver jelly prints are the best there are).  I also enjoy the process; a day in the darkroom, followed the next morning taking the prints from the drying rack and viewing them in good light.  Some prints get torn up, or marked up for reprinting, but that is another story.  I also enjoy charcoal drawing and etching, but I no longer have an etching press.

Foam, Fernhook Falls, Deep River, WA 2009

The importance of the rightness of a chosen medium in Modernist practice was beautifully described by Brett Whitely in his introduction to the catalogue of his printmaking; the parallels to photographic printmaking are clear.

Brancusi in sculpture & Mattise (Sic) in graphics were the two artists that particularly made one aware of respecting the integrity and truth of each medium whether it be marble, cedar, lithography charcoal etc; that a pen behaves so differently from a brush, that to draw on copper with a fine nail suits certain subjects, that to draw with a greasy crayon on stone is perfect for others, the nude for example.  I am not interested in the Marxist side of printmaking - cheaper originals.  A good print should have the same feeling of ‘rightness’ that a one-off drawing should have.

Scan of Brett Whiteley catalogue

But equally an artist can use any technique or combinations of techniques, any paper, any photo reproduction method he chooses, in fact anything he thinks fits the image he is after . . .  But Brancusi and Mattise (Sic) knew that for openers.

Brett Whitely
Graphics 1961 – 1982
Pub. Art Gallery of Western Australia, 1983

I will deal with this quickly.  Cropping a photographic image is forbidden in my work.  No argument, this is fact.


The reasons are that cropping shows poor seeing or poor camera management.  If I refuse to crop I am forced to give attention to framing and particularly what is happening at the edges of the frame.  I never crop 35mm or 120, and print the edge of the enlarger frame.  With Hasselblad negatives this gives a black line at the edge of the print, with Rolleiflex negatives the image meets the edges of the neg' holder.

For 5x4", which I find to be an awkward format, neither square nor rectangular, I frame on the 9x12cm frame line in Linhof and Sinar ground glass screens.  This planned "cropping" gives me the 3:4 ratio I prefer, also this is the standard motion picture format.  Framing to the 9x12cm format looses dark slide and processing hanger marks.  But thse machine artifacts can look good in a 10x8" contact print.

My photographic printmaking technique is really simple.  I have four enlargers, DeVere DVF5108E and DVB504 for 10x8” and 5x4” or for large prints from smaller negatives.   The 5108 has a set of Rodagons, but I generally use a 240mm Apo-Geronar for 10x8” negatives to 20x24” prints, now my largest size.  There is no need for the 300mm enlarging lens as even for 30x40” prints a 240mm lens is extended to over 30cm, so there is lens coverage to spare and I can reach the controls without standing on a crate, or dropping the baseboard, which makes my back ache by the end of the day.  The DVB504 has a set of Schneider Componons and a 150mm G-Claron.

Darkroom enlargers

For small prints, to 12” square from 120 negatives and 10x15” from 35mm I use Leitz Focomat IIc and Ic enlargers with Ilford Multigrade heads.  These are very simple to operate and set the contrast grade, but I never go outside a grade two to three contrast range.  The Leitz Ic for 35mm has been fitted with a Rodenstock Apo-Rodagon and the auto-focus cam has been set to work with this lens through its entire range.  Resetting a Focomat auto-focus cam for a new lens is easy within narrow limits of focal length and takes only a few moments.  I have tried a Schneider Comonon S 50mm lens on the Focomat Ic, but it is outside the cam’s adjustment range.  The Focomat IIc has a new 35mm glassless carrier and a 6x6cm glassless bottom frame for Rollei negatives, less glass equals less dust, but 120 needs a top glass for absolute flatness.  These accessories for the IIc are from Kienzle Phototechnik, Wildberg, Germany.

I tend to use the best cameras and lenses I can afford, but the word 'afford' is the limiting factor, so I have no M Leicas or Leitz M mount lenses and I have sold my Hasselblad kit.  However, I do not compromise on darkroom, enlarger or enlarging lens quality.  These are the best that can be obtained.  The logic being that whatever the quality of the negative is it is filtered through the enlarger and lens, if these are poor quality the money spent on Zeiss, Schneder or Leitz camera lenses will be wasted.

The means and materials referred to here are not new, or unique to me.  They are standard procedures from the 1970s, but fifty years on they could do with being restated.

I use two paper types only, Foma Variant glossy and Foma Variant Warm Tone.  The choice of Foma paper from Bohemia is based on the fact it is regularly imported into Australia and is readily available.  My papers of choice were Ilford Galerie for the Littoral Portfolios and Agfa Record Rapid for other subjects.  I mourn the loss of these two papers deeply.  The soft dove-grey print colour of the Ilford was perfect for the cool light of the coast, and the deep warm tonal resonance of the Agfa RR was great for deserts, forests and prints of women.  But I am learning to work with the Foma, and the warm tone Foma has a rich tonality, although not when compared with a Record Rapid print.  However, like with film, the best results are obtained by getting to know how paper responds.  I do not use resin coated paper.

Prints are developed in Ilford ID20 MQ developer and sometimes Dr Beers as a two bath developer for some awkward negatives.  Dr Beers is basically a split MQ developer that is generally used mixed.

Stop bath is 2% acetic acid, I am tempted to use lemon juice as we have a huge lemon tree feeding from the leach drain, but I have not tried this yet.

There is a Fremantle photographer and friend who claims that an acid stop bath is bad as it adds acid to the print.  But to me this is silly as the fixer is acid and the acid is in any case neutralised by the alkali in the selenium toner and the hypo clearing agent.

Fixing is in Ilford IF-2 as a two bath fixer, two minutes in each bath.  When exhausted, the first fixer bath is put in a Silver Magnet electrolytic silver reclamation unit.  I am collecting a jar of crumbly metallic silver, but I am not sure what to do with it.  On the good side, it is not being released to the environment.

Occasionally I will brighten the contrast in deep shadows with almost hidden highlights with potassium ferricyanide in extremely dilute solution.  If used with care ferricyanide increases contrast of the shaded highlights without visibly reducing the depth of the blacks.

I selenium tone for black intensification, as in the New Zone System Manual, White, Zakia and Lorenz, pub Morgan & Morgan NY 1976, Appendix K, but at 10% KRST.

Hypo clearing is in Agfa 320 with 1% of Sodium sulphite added.  Print washing is tested with silver nitrate solution in acetic acid on a test strip taken through the whole process for this porpoise.  My prints are of archival quality as I see no point making prints on good paper and not finishing them properly.

A printing map of burning and dodging, with notes on exposure time, aperture, edition numbers and other details are recorded in my photo journal.  These notes are important.

I help my wife Rae with lith negatives and with the darkroom aspects of her alternative process work with cyanotype and gum bichromate, but I have no interest in these printmaking methods for myself.  Photogravure has always attracted me, and my etching background draws me there as well, but time and no etching press means I will continue with silver jelly for as long as I can.

Firstly,  I do not refute the huge value of digital photography in many ares and in particualr the value of its immediacy for reportage and scientific use.  The following remarks are about the current states of of negative scanning and digital printing.

There is a current practice to use film cameras for photography followed by scanning the negatives for digital printing or other use.  Apart from scanning a silver negative for email or a website I feel this is a silly way to work.  Often the claim is that the photographer likes the quality of old lenses.  This is fair and valid, but there is a range of ever improving digital cameras to use with treasured lenses; for my use I have a Sony α7 with E39 and Nikon F adaptors which works very well and obviates the need for film for purely digital use.

Regarding digital printing, when compared to silver jelly a black and white digital print, even the most ‘arty’ print from the 42” Epson large format machine, is a flat and boring thing.  This is not mere opinion; the digital print tonal range can be measured and proved with a reflection densitometer.

These two personal observations go against the freeing of means of Post Modernism and harken back to the purity of Modernism, but on a practical level they are true.

I hope this brief collection of thoughts clarifies my personal apporach with an otherwise outmoded medium.

I extend these thoughts to the notion that silver jelly printing in C21 is akin to etching and lithography after the introduction of commercial offset lithography.

On a final practical note, despite my best efforts, attempts to make the image scans in this blog look good when transferred to a computer screen fail meserably.  They lose all the depth and subtlety I strive to achieve in the silver jelly originals.  The only way to view a black and white film based original is as a fine silver jelly print, a medium I adore.


← Return to Blog